Cadet Cudia and Honor in the Philippines

PMA02I will presume that readers know generally about the case of Cadet First Class Aldrin Jeff Cudia and probably have an opinion about the Philippine Military Academy’s endorsement of the student Honor Committee’s dismissal of Cadet Cudia from the school for a violation of honor, to wit, lying about why he was late for a class.

The dismissal has provoked a lot of public outrage for the severity of the punishment doled out to a student set to graduate near the top of his class. It has also provoked a great deal of determination among military people to defend strict rules of honor because, on the battle field, honor and time down to the second are life and death matters.

The circumstances of what happened to make Cadet Cudia late are confusing and arguable. So everyone is arguing them.

Arguing the details is not the purpose of this blog. The purpose of this blog is to propose that honor can be defined more than one way. The Filipino military way is by the book. I suggest there is another way, and it is much more important to the winning of battles than a by-the-book interpretation of honor.

  • honor (noun): high respect; esteem.  Synonyms: distinction, glory, kudos, prestige

In the military, the term “honor” is often used to reflect bravery under fire, thus the awarding of a “medal of honor” to those who do distinctive things on the battlefield. In a school setting, it is used to express an understood, fully committed, disciplined obedience to the rules. I suppose it could be looked at as a proxy of a cadet’s courage and discipline under fire. A cadet is required to state an oath that he will obey the rules and the failure to do so is considered a LACK of honor.

It was determined by the PMA Student Honor Board that Cadet Cudia was lacking the high degree of honor that is needed to be a qualified military leader in the Philippines.

With that as background, let me now try to draw a distinction between two types of honor. One I shall call “obedient honor” and the other “self-motivated honor”.

Obedient Honor

Obedient honor is intellectual. It is rational. It is a person’s stated verbal commitment to an oath and the rational recognition of the need to do the acts the code – or the orders from one’s supervising officer – calls for. An order is given and it is followed. No deviation. No questions asked. There is distinction awarded to the person who does that, and the PMA DEMANDS that its graduating cadets be able to do it. Otherwise they are deemed unreliable and unqualified to either lead or follow as officers of the military.

All who graduate demonstrate this kind of disciplined ability to adhere to rules during the few years they are in school.

Self-Motivated Honor

Self-motivated honor is emotional, it is instinctive. It is often irrational. It is a person’s natural determination to respond to the events before him and win the battle. Loose grenade? Dive on it so companions can live to fight on. Enemy machine gun nest causing havoc? Drive single-mindedly up the hill, regardless of gunfire or wounds, to take it out. Airplane going down? Drive it into the enemy ship and take some people to hell on your way to heaven.


The PMA presumes that those cadets who can master the intellectual disciplines of obedience can also master the emotional demands of distinctive acts under fire.

But it doesn’t really work that way.

Why do Generals Go Bad?

I hope the change of direction was not too sharp for you, but we have to reconcile our knowledge that some (many?) graduates of the Philippine Military Academy do deeds that are outside the law. Why do they do this?

I’d argue that they do it because their form of honor is intellectual and easily set aside for something more meaningful. Something emotionally satisfying, like a big car and nice house and maybe a promotion or two. It is easy to set aside an intellectual obligation to others if the riches and standard of life or power and promotions make breaking the rules a better choice.

People are obedient during school because they know that PMA credentials represent a good way to a leadership position. And in that leadership position they can have power and authority and riches.

Honor practiced in the Academy may, for some, or even many, be driven by a personal desire to get ahead, NOT a deep, sacrificial  aspiration to serve the nation.

The desire to get ahead remains after graduation and shifts to bad behavior instead of obeying rules.

But self-motivated honor is different.

It is virtually impossible to set aside a promise, a commitment, a pride, in oneself and one’s nation. Self-determined, emotional honor is wrapped around a core belief that doing what is RIGHT is the highest value there is. It requires no thought when the grenade rolls out because honor IS life itself for people of complete commitment to a cause. Honor is more important than trivial tactile toys like money or title or cars and homes.

A Taliban suicide bomber knows such honor.

But PMA graduates? I think perhaps some do and some don’t.

Back to Cadet Cudia

As I see the persistence of Cadet Cudia, his refusal to accept the findings of the Honor Committee as accurate or fair, his willingness to speak out and even take his case directly to President Aquino, I’m inclined to think I’d rather have him in the foxhole with me than the members of the Honor Committee who grasp intellectual rules and obedience, but evidently not heart.

And what is hard to say. . . but I think, therefore, I say . . .

For the matter of a few minutes of time and confusing circumstance, the members of the Honor Committee sacrificed a buddy. They did not dive on the grenade for him, for sure. They could not figure out a way to punish short of expulsion.

Honor is not heartless, I believe that deeply. It is absolutely filled with heart. And it frequently involves judgments in an instant that make no intellectual sense whatsoever.

And I further believe that self-motivated honor can be suppressed by mandated obedience that does not allow individual discernment and judgment to prosper. Or the emergence of an adult conscience.

Treat a kid like an adult and he will return that trust with mature behavior.

Treat a cadet like an honorable person proud of his ability to discern and decide, and even sacrifice, and you will make a better fighter, and better leader, than a cadet who just obeys the rules because in doing so, he can get rich.

29 Responses to “Cadet Cudia and Honor in the Philippines”
  1. Joseph-Ivo says:

    A word has a meaning but also a color, both can differ in different contexts, between people, depending on perceptions. Some words are more straight forward, some can vary over 180 degrees. Honor is such a dangerous word. The “honor” of the Mafia, close to loyalty and requiring blood vengeance or honor of a boy scout just and helping all, doing his daily good deeds.

    Deciding in a straight forward situation can often be straight forward. Deciding in a borderline situation can cause two basic errors, absolving the culprit or sentencing the innocent.

    Back to Cudia and the PMA’s honor code. In this case a military commander I would prefer to err in freeing a rebel, rather than possibly condemning an innocent cadet. Why?

    1- Generals prepare for yesterday’s wars. Tomorrow fighting will be like playing video games, not boots on the ground but drones in the air, you will need crazy nerds adapting instantly to changing situations, deciding for themselves, not the disciplined cadets preparing to die in a battle line.

    2- In the French Foreign Legion French (Légion étrangère) loyalty is 100% towards the legion, honor is found exclusively in the legion, we and our commander is all that counts, as it was since Roman times. Armies today need civilians with a military profession. The romantic and disciplined marching on training grounds became irrelevant for technical experts.

    3- Most importantly, the army (and the church) should no longer be powers in a true democracy.

    4- The only thing one does not have to teach in the Philippines is subservience. Show respect to elders po, listen to your teacher, do never question your superior, it all comes with the mother milk, I guess.

    We don’t need any more army officers who can lend (sell) their “services” to politicians or other war lords. They now that their soldiers will ask no questions and shoot. (see rub-outs, Ampatuan and hundreds of other examples). Society need soldiers that can think for themselves, ”Is my coming late justified or not?” If they can’t do that independently and we gave them lethal weapons, then we are in for more trouble.

    Where did the PMA fail to make Cudia think for himself correctly, without the pressure of an honor commission, that is the fundamental question.

    • Joe America says:

      Please excuse the late response. Globe broadband was out all day, ’til now.

      I think it will be a while before the drones do it, judging from how Russian troops tromped across the Crimea last week. I do agree with your point that the army and Church should be irrelevant to a vibrant democracy, but that presumes all states are that way, and that seems way beyond the horizon, too. Subservience is worth discussing more. In a way, self-motivated honor seems to be an extreme subservience of self to an idea, that the community is greater than my life. And in my example, the Taliban suicide bomber, honor can be applied doing deeds I would consider “bad”. So the value or knowledge that underpins honor has to be considered.

      Your last question also warrants discussion. I am not sure the PMA can teach honor if the entire community surrounding it seems hell-bent on taking care of its individuals, rather than the community. If the graduate leaves the academy and finds his commanding officer busy trading favors and living the rich and easy life . . . well, I think community values will influence the graduate.

      My “lesson”, such as it is, applies to civilian schools, too. Substitute “innovation” for honor in the sentence: “And I further believe that self-motivated honor can be suppressed by mandated obedience that does not allow individual discernment and judgment to prosper.”

      In teaching lessons in authoritarian fashion, we rob students of the essential capacity to give themselves passionately to very important disciplines.

      • Joseph-Ivo says:

        Drones is only one example, fighting terrorism, cyber-warfare, disaster relief, searching for a black box are some others. The army needs experts thinking independently more than before, especially on an officers’ level.

        Honorable and just. Honorable (obedient and self-motivated) is more linked to perception in a group, were just is more universal and related to natural laws. The possible intentional lie of Cudia was not honorable, the condemnation was not just. For me “just” is of the higher order. The PMA has to think how to teach cadets this difference if they want to become “civilian” experts (in defending the nation), rather than just legionnaires serving the general.

        I just discovered the word honor in the title of this blog, beside Society and “Joe America”, three dangerous words in one sentence. Society from a group of friends (socius: ally, friend), over a secret societies, Jesuits, high society, up to society at large. “Joe America” from the supersized Cola drinking – Big Macs munching – obese – ignorant – gun adoring – coach potato – knowing everything better Joe, over the illiterate cowboy Joe, the Tea-party American, the Vietnam veteran stuck in Angeles, all Caucasians being either Joe or Kano, up to our “Joe America”. How confusing. All three words that raised my suspicion from the beginning when I met Joe America in Raissa’s blog uttering a very American view point and opened his blog under the motto “know your enemies viewpoints” 🙂

        • edgar lores says:

          1. By word count in the last paragraph, “Joe America” seems to be the most dangerous – or the most confusing – term in the title. 🙂

          2. The best quality of the military mind at the non-rank level would be an unquestioning and disciplined obedience. At the officer level, it would be something akin to an engineer’s mind: the ability to look at a situation in terms of vectors, the ability to quantify those vectors, and the ability to take those base vectors, combine them with new vectors, and arrive at an efficient arrangement.
          2.1. We know from this Cudia episode that the first quality is being taught at PMA; we are not too sure about the second quality. And, as you point out, they have to be conversant with the new vectors of technology .

          3. There is a third quality that underlies these two other qualities, and it is the continuous awareness of the nobility of the calling, which is to protect and defend. However, that nobility must always be subsumed under civilian control. For the military mind to preside over the state is the most dangerous thing because of the basic instinct for self-preservation, and the mindset that the ends justifies the means.
          3.1. Dwight D. Eisenhower was perhaps an exception. On one hand, he first articulated the domino theory that proved to be wrong, but this was during the Cold War era. On the other hand, he coined the term “military-industrial complex” which is still relevant today as can be seen in the nexus of the NSA and the leading technological firms.

          • Joe America says:

            Yes, the nobility of the calling, to protect and defend, subsumed to civilian control that is peaceful, at the root, and compassionate, too. That rather smashes my Taliban example to smithereens, and raises the Philippine Constitution up for mandating peaceful solutions. I wish the US would get rid of its National Anthem, or switch it to American the Beautiful. Enough with the bombs bursting in air as the personality of the land. Still, I wish the Philippines would build more small missile carrying speedboats . . . like, add a little military industrial complex to the complex . . .

        • Joe America says:

          Ahhhhhhh my, have we met somewhere? Aristocrat restaurant? Airport lounge? How did you KNOW all that stuff? But no worry, I’ve got all you flighty socialist idealists pegged, too, impossible to nail down because they just spurt a wisdom out of the left side of their brain if the right is not working today. Ahahahaha . . . 😉

          • Joseph-Ivo says:

            The problem is my brother, he is 4 years older and he knows everything, reading 3 books a day. Flighty? With my slight dyslexia and age handicap he is far ahead, I have to read book reviews and now Wikipedia to give him the impression that he is not the only one who knows, he needs that to stay modest. (or is it to keep my honor?)

            Socialist? If striving for a free market with equal opportunity is socialist, then indeed I’m a socialist. (From the 20% Danes at the bottom of society, 25% of their children stay in that poorest 20% segment -with equal opportunity or randomly it would be 20% -, in the US 58% don’t get out, in the Philippines no data, 90% (?) because lack of opportunity correlates with income inequality. Those who climb out, only improve a little. You can mirror the picture. 25 % of the children of the 20% richest in Denmark stay in this top segment, 75% fall out (a little), only 42% fall out in the US. Better – or unique – access to rent is the main reason why the wealthy stay wealthy. (Or is it to keep my honor?)

            Drones is only one example, fighting terrorism, cyber-warfare, disaster relief, searching for a black box are some others. The army needs experts thinking independently more than before, especially in an officers’ level.

            • Joe America says:

              Ah, older brothers, I have one of those, too, about two years older. At least your older brother beat you with his brains, mine used his fists. Well, until I sprouted above six feet and he remained mired below. Then I beat him with my grades. 🙂

              I actually don’t think you are either flighty or a socialist, but you are an idealist, and that is what forms the very solid foundation for your forward thinking. So that’s good. I agree the Philippine military needs to dig deeper, not float on the surface of obedience and lack of ingenuity. Man, if I was the navy guy, I’d be training up underwater commandos and building a lot of speedy little missile boats. They are buying a handful, I think, and that is not exactly a military industrial complex. It’s like the military is here to train with the Americans and go back to base and swim in the pool or drink at the officer’s club, not to crawl in the dirt or get bloody sticking it to any foreigner who lands on Philippine rocks without permission. I’d also figure out a way to track Chinese fleets with American satellites, and it would be nice if that sort of arrangement were tacked on to the bases agreement. But I digress . . .

  2. sonny says:

    Joe, this fuddy-duddy is still caught up in the military hagiography of Hollywood: THE LONG GRAY LINE, PATTON, THE LONGEST DAY, SAVING PRIVATE RYAN, GLADIATOR, TO HELL AND BACK; in books like GALLIC WARS by Julius Caesar, THE PHILIPPINE ARMY,1935-42 by Ricardo Trota Jose; in memories of father and uncles and patriots of our great generation who fought under the USAFIP-NL commanded by Col. Russell Volckmann, USMA. Sorry. I do have this melange of carriers of what I do call HONOR, DUTY, COUNTRY, SPQR. I can’t map what the Honor Committee used on Cadet Cudia, nor the effect of PMA honor on grads like Honasan and the PMA generals that were ineffective or bilked their country dry.

    Forgive the rant.

    • Joe America says:

      ‘Tis a fine rant, sonny, needing no forgiving. I served in the Viet Nam war, which was an interesting little escapade that saw Americans condemning their government for waging a useless war, and it got to the point were civilians were blaming the troops. Soldiers returning went nuts in Nam for the blood and gore, and nuts at home when other Americans blamed them for doing bad deeds.

      So my example of leaping on the grenade is not from the movies. It is from a colleague of mine at the bank where I worked, a geeky little credit review officer. His unit was clearing VC from a village when a Chinese style grenade came flip-flopping out of a hooch, right in front of him. He dived on it. Landing on it suppressed the firing mechanism, or that mechanism took a long time counting down. His buddies dived for the dirt, he grabbed the grenade and threw it, it went off, and he now rings airport security panels because of the pieces of shrapnel the medics left in.

      The US also has its (to me) bizarre by-the-book officers. I’ve got stories, but they are too long for the telling here.

      I would also note that Filipinos fielded a LOT of honorable soldiers during WWII. I think things here rather went south under Marcos and now the environment too often makes a clean-cut guy the subject of ridicule.

    • edgar lores says:


      “To Hell and Back” (1955) brings back memories. Audie Murphy. Those were such simple times despite the hell of the world war. The innocence of mind and pleasures, and the melodic songs of that period – pre-war and post-war – are untouchable and unsurpassable. Cole Porter. Patti Page. The Platters. Nat King Cole. It all went downhill with Elvis who, despite many gentle and gospel songs, started the modern equivalent of The Fall with his “Jailhouse Rock” and his swivelin’ hips that led to the unintelligibility of today’s rappers.

      • sonny says:

        Edgar, Joe, I envy the almost neurotic part of American society to document everything and ask questions later. The songs of and about deeds are first recorded and then later decide on who are the goats and heroes later. Contrast this to what Philippine society has: authentication, accuracy, and remembrance are almost non-existent, let alone mentioned. So it is left to foreign sources to determine what is to be remembered as part of our national patrimony. I mentioned the book of Ricardo Trota Jose about the Philippine Army of the commonwealth. All cadets should study this history very well, else our leadership will suffer neoteny big time!

        For the question of honor & duty & country, for example. From my vantage point, the evolution of our army from the revolutionary period to the brink of Pearl Harbor are scattered into oblivion judging from the behavior of our military elite and leaders. This common remembrance is vital to building Filipino military tradition of noblesse oblige that can be built upon by incoming PMA cadets to learn from and current Military leadership to protect and pass on.

        • Joe America says:

          Risk taking . . . I need to write about that. Americans are good at it, which is that part of acting and accepting the consequences that gets suppressed here by the relentless criticism and extending from one mistake to paint an entire person, or administration. No, it was just a mistake in its own narrow context.

          Actually, I think Filipinos do remember, but when they look back, everything is so conflicted that it is hard to sort it out and gain lessons that stick. How can you be anti-elite and for Rizal, after all, or for the independence that Aguinaldo brought whilst recognizing he was the first of the self-engaged power brokers who raided the treasury and shot his enemies. How can you be against the Americans but need them to keep the Chinese off Palawan?

          I’d have to do a lot more reading to understand how the army evolved up to Pearl Harbor. I only know of the Zambales rebels led by the Magsaysay brothers who hid in the hills and coordinated with the U.S. to smash all the Japanese communications and infrastructure so the Americans could land there without a shot fired. Then they jointly drove to Manila from the north, with a huge battle outside of Olongapo, cannons to left and cannons to right.

          It is the conflicted history that makes valor hard to claim, perhaps. What, EXACTLY, are we fighting for . . . historically? Coups and a dictator and two occupations and generals murdering generals and an elite Dr. Rizal.

          That’s why I’d argue the fight ought to be for the present, the diversity and the riches and the promise, not yet realized. But oh so close.

  3. edgar lores says:

    1. I like the distinction between “obedient honor” and “self-motivated honor”. One is mind-deep and the other heart-deep.
    1.1. I also like Joseph’s characterization of honor as a dangerous word, together with the need for Filipinos to discard the idea of honor as subservience and for Filipinos to think for themselves and to think correctly.

    2. When I try to understand the word “honor” as it is used in the country, I see four applications.
    2.1. First, the word is used as a title of respect, an honorific, extended to judges and to public officials from senators down to barangay captains. It’s “Your Honor, this” or “Your Honor, that.”
    2.2. Second, the word is used as an adjective to refer to a distinguished person such as “the Honorable Senator from San Juan” or to refer to a crowd as in “Honorable Guests.” In both instances, the word may have a satirical slant.
    2.3. Third, the word is used as verb as a substitute for “respect” as in the biblical injunction to “honor your father and mother” or in the marriage vow “I will love you and honor you all the days of my life.” Honor, in this sense, is to respect in words and in deeds.
    2.4. Fourth and last, the word is used as a noun as in the PMA “Code of Honor” or in “The Society of Honor”.

    3. I think it is as a noun that the word “honor” is least understood. JoeAm has quoted the first definition given by Google. I would like to quote the second definition:
    3.1. noun: 2. “the quality of knowing and doing what is morally right.”

    4. What is the Filipino’s sense of honor as a noun?
    4.1. If asked, many would give the answer “respect”, but beyond that they would not be able explain exactly what it means.
    4.2. They would immediately know though when their honor has been impugned.
    4.3. To make the point quickly: senators know when to defend their honor but do not know how to act with honor.

    5. So what is honor?
    5.1. To me, honor is to be true. True to what? Well, whatever the object may be: a principle, a cause, a calling, a spouse, and, perhaps most importantly, oneself.
    5.2. This means that to have honor is to behave according to what one thinks and feels is right. It is mind-deep and heart-deep. The word “integrity” comes to mind.

    6. I was taken aback by the sentence “A Taliban suicide bomber knows such honor.”
    6.1. Using my definition, and from the viewpoint of the bomber, I would have to agree that the statement is true.
    6.2. This is where the second definition, quoted in 3.1, assumes importance.
    6.2.1. There are two operative terms in the definition: “knowing” and “morally right.”
    6.2.2. The bomber “knows” his religion but does not “know” the world beyond his beliefs.
    6.2.3. The bomber acts according to what his religion – or, rather, his interpretation of his religion – teaches him as “morally right” but he does not act according to a higher secular morality that encompasses all religions.
    6.3. Now if only politicians understood 5.1 – 5.2 and archbishops understood 6.2, then we might just become a real society of honor.

    • Joe America says:

      Thank you for the last note on 2.2; I was reflecting that the Ombudsman has just laid a heavy hammer on his former Honor Corona.

      4.2 Honor hereabouts is too easily impugned, I think. Sensitivities are raw.

      5.2 In a military unit, honor, integrity, and valor unite.

      Thanks for the entire discussion in 6. I was not able to parse that in my own mind, but you have made it clear. And your final word points toward understandings that we might all be wise to reflect on.

    • What a comment! Edgar Lores hit the right notes with 4. Politicians and some Filipinos equates “honor” to reputation. That’s also dangerous because reputation is only skin deep; it can be faked. Those military men can maintain their posture and decorum in public, but I’m not buying that facade.

      6 kinda implies the subjective nature of being honorable. Everyone could have a personal honor code. Chaos thrives in subjective matters. That’s why there are laws, but sloppy implementation in this country defeats the purpose.

  4. edgar lores says:

    On Cudia, here’s my two cents:

    1. It can be demonstrated that he lied, if he was the only one late in the English class, and his dismissal can be considered appropriate. Not for being late, not even for lying, but for bringing this on himself… and perhaps for poor English.

    2. If the member of the Honor Committee – who allegedly changed his vote – did change his vote under pressure from the Committee and lied about changing it, he too should be dismissed. (Well, it’s too late now, but whatever is the equivalent of dismissal, like shining the boots of a whole battalion for a whole year.)

    3. If the Honor Committee did not follow due process, all the members, too, should be dismissed (or its equivalent).
    3.1. If they are allowed to hang on to their diplomas, Cudia should be given his.
    3.2. Like Cudia, they should not be allowed to serve in the armed forces. (Or, if allowed, only to clean the latrines with toothbrushes for as many years until another Honor Committee qualifies. For the cadet in item 2, this is on top of his boot-shining duties.)

    4. The aptly-acronymic Cadet Reviews Appeals Board (CRAB) and the Academy should be castigated for (a) not knowing the correct review procedure on allowing a second vote, (b) not ensuring that due process was strictly followed, and (c) for allowing the case to be escalated all the way to Palace. (For heaven’s sake, must the President decide everything?)

    5. The AFP should be castigated for being late in submitting their case review report to the President which was due March 24 or earlier. A couple of Hail Mary’s… Wait, this is the government not religion.

    • Joe America says:

      That’s a very good point, number 3. As I understand it, Cadet Cudia was being punished for not being truthful in his explanation as to why he was late. It would take a precise transcript to sort that out. But using skulduggery to exact a conviction is downright dishonorable. We need a transcript for that, but it is one of those hidden, backroom deals, and they would not honor us with such transcript, I think. I think the AFP should be castigated for not understanding that a school is for teaching.

  5. Based on Edgar Lores’ view on Japanese honor at 6:14, and Joe citing the Taliban suicide bomber as an example , I’m starting to see a scary and dangerous side of “honor.” I guess there’s a need to change the name of this blog to “Society of Justice,” “Society of Progress,” or “Society of Compassion.”

  6. Dee says:

    Cudia’s case is now in the court:

    Personally, I view honor as synonymous to magnanimity. It is the goodness of the heart and the soundness of the mind. It is compassion, fairness, kindness, intelligence and courage rolled into one.

  7. Dee says:

    OFF TOPIC but someone finally stood up to one of the unprofessional officers at the Philippines Immigration Office:

    Happy days are here again.

    • Joe America says:

      Bravo, thanks. Yes, the Department of Immigration is one of those “Lord of the Roost” agencies where authoritarianism exudes from the pores of the staff. They have the power and by damn, they aren’t afraid to show it. I’m reminded of big black P2.5 million SUV’s whose drivers have some weird need to drive recklessly fast, as if simply having the car were not enough to show everyone else how wonderful they are. They also have to trample on others. . . . ostensibly, I think, to prove to themselves how wonderful they are. We also have those guys on freeways in the US. Usually they are young people not yet grown up.

      I don’t know what Immigration’s excuse is.

  8. ikalwewe says:

    Heard about the cudia case and I cannot help but find it unfair. His chosen word was wrong, but the thing to take note of, is that he was late because of his teacher, an outside “influence”. What if somebody put the teacher up to this?

    It’s so hypocritical BTW. And selective. Somebody brought up the cheating case years ago(before I was born) and you’d wonder why a person with more connections was able to graduate from PMA,”honor” intact and all, when his “sin” was heavier than cudia’s. Someone set a precedent before:this cheater was given a “second chance” for lack of better word. OK fine, they say it was Cudia’s third time to be summoned by the honor commottee. it was his third chance…but it’s so suspicious the way they seemed to have ganged up on him. They forced one committee member to change his vote- there is obviously something going on here. Come on, where’s the honor in that?!

    And about this two kinds of honor. Japanese are the obedient types.most of them.they do everything by the book, it is SO frustrating. It favors obedience to existing rules vs using common sense.when the situations play out differently than the manual or training-which in reality, it does-they freeze and panic. Eg-you can’t request your burger to be without pickles or your tea to have sugar because it’s not “in their book” never mind that customers are supposedly kings (or queens). You can observe these “values” in their movies (eg killing your friends and family to obey rules or codes ) which is different from Hollywood’s usual theme (breaking the rules to save a loved one). Neither is very good taken to the extreme, I say a healthy dose of being obedient and being a trouble maker.

    • Joe America says:

      I’m thinking that most military heroes have a bit of trouble-maker in them, almost a determination NOT to do the expected when the situation calls for it. Very excellent point.

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